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Diabetic retinopathy, the most common diabetic eye disease, occurs when blood vessels in the retina change. Sometimes these vessels swell and leak fluid or even close off completely. In other cases, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. It can also cause growth of abnormal new blood vessels on the surface of the retina. There are four stages of diabetic retinopathy that begin with the occurrence of micro aneurysms and eventually lead to 

 the presence of abnormal blood vessels on the surface of the retina  that can easily leak fluid and cause severe vision loss and even blindness.The fluid can also leak into the center of the macula and cause swelling and blurred vision, a condition known as macular edema.

The risk of developing macular edema increases as diabetic retinopathy progresses. Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes. People who have diabetic retinopathy often don't notice changes in their vision in the disease's early stages. But as it progresses, diabetic retinopathy usually causes vision loss that in many cases cannot be reversed. 

Treatment of Diabetic Eye Conditions

To make matters worse, a significant number of cases of diabetes and diabetic eye disease go undetected or untreated because people fail to have routine comprehensive eye exams as recommended by their optometrist or ophthalmologist.Treatment for early stages of diabetic retinopathy and other conditions usually focuses on maintaining levels of blood sugar, blood pressure and blood cholesterol, in order to prevent any permanent damage from occurring. For more advanced stages of the condition, laser surgery is often effective in shrinking the abnormal blood vessels through more than 1,000 laser burns in the area of the retina. This procedure, known as scatter laser treatment, usually requires two or more sessions in order to fully remove the blood vessels.

Macular edema can also be treated through a laser procedure, called focal laser treatment, which places hundreds of laser burns in the area of retinal leakage to reduce the amount of fluid in the retina. This treatment only requires one session.Laser treatments can be performed in your doctor's office. Anesthetic eye drops will be used to minimize pain during the procedure. Patients may experience blurry vision for the remainder of the day, and should rest at home. It is important for patients to realize that these procedures cannot cure diabetic eye conditions, but rather help reduce vision loss and slow the progression for patients with more advanced cases. Most laser and non-laser treatments for diabetic eye disease depend on the severity of the eye changes and type of vision problems you have.

Information From Google
 

Diabetic retinopathy ([ˌrɛtnˈɑpəθi]), also known as diabetic eye disease, is when damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes. It can eventually lead to blindness.

It is an ocular manifestation of diabetes, a systemic disease, which affects up to 80 percent of all patients who have had diabetes for 20 years or more. Despite these intimidating statistics, research indicates that at least 90% of these new cases could be reduced if there were proper and vigilant treatment and monitoring of the eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy. Each year in the United States, diabetic retinopathy accounts for 12% of all new cases of blindness. It is also the leading cause of blindness for people aged 20 to 64 years.

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